Tuesday, August 25, 2020

I want you to read my decument ( IEP Study notes) and answer my Essay

I need you to peruse my decument ( IEP Study notes) and answer my inquiry 2-3-4 - Essay Example There must be an accord between the guardians and the school that that individual from the gathering doesn't join in. This might be for the explanation that their specialized topic won't be examined in the gathering (Siegel, Lawrence M, 2011). Besides despite the fact that the aptitude of the part will be required the part might be avoided from the gathering, yet it has additionally to be recorded as a hard copy by the school and the guardians. The part who is prohibited from the gathering needs to place it into composing that he won't go to the gathering, which is done before the gathering to guarantee that there is an audit of what's in store during the gathering. I would suggest that the agreement be recharged with conditions whereby I will guarantee to catch up on the advancement and see whether the exhibition is improving or that the part is still on a similar position they were during assessment. I would restore on the grounds that the evaluations expresses that the individual from staff can improve and attempt to give another

Saturday, August 22, 2020

LA---The City that Might Have Been Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

LA - The City that Might Have Been - Essay Example In the event that the task was transformed into the real world, have it not been for disappointments in land arrangements, the manufacturers would have confronted the test of truly making the structure secure and ready to stand the terrible conditions on the ocean achieved by evolving seasons. Upkeep would have been a genuine test since keeping such a structure, that ought to withstand solid downpours, is very costly. Notwithstanding the structure, there was likewise a proposition of having a glass-encased scaffold that interfaces the structure to the shore. This is a truly virtuoso arrangement and a similar test introduced by the structure is appropriate to the extension. With such a stupendous proposed assembling, funds for the support probably won't be an issue after all on the grounds that without a doubt, this venture would have pulled in individuals around the territory as well as from everywhere throughout the world. The experience this undertaking offers to exceptionally audacious clients may have carried great monetary chances to neighborhood and outside speculators on account of the building configuration as well as due to the experience that individuals regularly look for and readily pay for. The genuine test that designers would have truly confronted if the venture pushed through would be the affirmation that the structure is a protected spot for individuals to go to. Despite the fact that designing and compositional tasks demonstrated that it is conceivable to assemble solid structures in the ocean as confirm by a few extension structures which remained steadfast and dangerous waters for a considerable length of time, the idea of building a spot which will continually house various individuals is very extraordinary to

Sunday, July 26, 2020

What is Operant Conditioning and How Does it Work

What is Operant Conditioning and How Does it Work Every morning, billions of people around the world get up early in the morning and beat the morning traffic to get to their places of work. If they could, many of these people would avoid this daily routine.Many people hate having to get up at 6, prepare themselves in a rush and head out for work, yet all of them do it anyway, because they know that at the end of the month, they will receive a paycheck.What would happen if these people stopped receiving the paycheck at the end of the month? How many people would get up every morning and go to work if they were not promised a salary at the end of the month?Very few, and the reason behind this is because of something known as operant conditioning. Going to work 5 days a week in exchange for a salary is a great example of operant conditioning.WHAT IS OPERANT CONDITIONING?Operant conditioning, also referred to as Skinnerian conditioning or instrumental conditioning, is a learning method where desired and voluntary behavior is taught thro ugh the use of positive and negative incentives.Through a system of rewards and punishments, individuals make an association between a specific behavior and the consequences of the behavior. The association of the behavior with a reward or punishment leads to a modification in the strength of the behavior. Operant conditioning is not something new. We can all point out numerous examples of how rewards and punishments have shaped our own behavior. Growing up, we tried a number of behaviors and then learned whether they are good or bad behaviors from their consequences.Operant conditioning plays a very powerful role in everyday learning, and we see the principles of operant conditioning at play almost every day.Below are some examples of how a system of rewards and punishment are used to influence behavior on a daily basis:A sales person receiving a bonus for hitting his targets. The bonus acts as a reward, encouraging the sales person to continue hitting his targets.A parent giving a child a prize for excellent grades to encourage the child to continue performing well in school.An employee who is habitually late to work is scolded by the boss, leading to a decrease in the behavior.A student who remains in detention because of playing truant is likely to stop the behavior.Giving customers redeemable loyalty points for shopping at a specific store increases their likelihood of shopping at the same store.Operant conditioning is based on three main assumptions. The first assumption is that any action leads to an experience that is a direct consequence of the action.The second assumption is that the perceived quality of the consequences of an action influences the likelihood of the action being repeated.The final assumption is that behavior is mainly influenced by external, rather than internal factors.HOW DID OPERANT CONDITIONING COME ABOUTThe concept of operant conditioning was first put forward by B. F. Skinner, an American psychologist, behaviorist and social ph ilosopher. The term Skinnerian conditioning is a reference to his name. At the turn of the 20th century, psychologists had grown very interested in behaviorism.Already, the concept of classical conditioning, had been proposed. Behaviorists who subscribed to the classical conditioning concept believed that learning was a mental and emotional process. They believed that the best way of studying behavior and learning was by looking at the internal thoughts and motivations of an individual.While Skinner did not deny that the fact that internal thoughts and motivations have an influence on behavior, he thought that viewing them as the key drivers of behavior was too simplistic to explain complex human behavior. Skinner theorized that the best way of understanding learning and human behavior was to look at an individual’s actions and the consequences of these actions.In explaining his theory, Skinner came up with the term “operant conditioning.” Skinner defined an operant as any act ive and deliberate behavior that led to a consequence. Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning borrowed heavily from Edward Thorndike’s Law of Effect.Thorndike’s principle stated that actions that lead to favorable outcomes have a higher probability of being repeated. On the other hand, actions that lead to unfavorable outcomes are less likely to be repeated.Operant conditioning is based on an equally simple premise. Actions that are reinforced will be strengthened and are more likely to be repeated in future. For example, if you take some risks at work and your boss praises you for your courage, you are more likely to take another risk in future.If you purchase from a particular store and they give you a discount, you are likely to shop from the same store again in future. In this case, receiving praise from your boss and receiving a discount from the store are positive reinforcements that encourage your behavior. The outcomes of your actions were desirable, thus strengtheni ng the preceding actions.Some actions, on the other hand, lead to undesirable consequences or punishment.Such actions are weakened and are less likely to be repeated. If you took a risk at work and your boss scolded you for acting without running things through him, you will be less likely to take another risk at work.Similarly, if you shop from a particular store and you later realize they sold you a low quality product, you are less likely to shop from them in future. In this case, the scolding from your boss and the poor quality product are undesired outcomes or punishments.To test his theory, Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber, also known as the Skinner box, which he used to conduct experiments using animals. The operant conditioning chamber allowed Skinner to isolate small animals, such as rats and pigeons, and then expose them to carefully controlled stimuli.Skinner also came up with another invention known as the cumulative recorder, which allowed him to keep a record of the response rates (the number of times an animal pressed a key or bar inside the Skinner box).HOW OPERANT CONDITIONING WORKSSkinner stated that individuals (both humans and animals) display two key types of behaviors. The first type is known as respondent behaviors. Respondent behavior refers to actions automatically and on reflex. You don’t need any learning in order to display respondent behavior.A good example of respondent behavior occurs when you touch something hot. Without thinking about it, you immediately draw your hand back from the hot surface.Pavlov’s classic experiments with dogs is another great example of respondent behavior. Dogs automatically and involuntarily salivate to the presentation of food. By ringing a bell every time before presenting food to his dogs, Pavlov formed an association between the ringing of a bell and the presentation of food, and his dogs learned to salivate when they simply heard a bell, even if no food was presented.Skinner n oted that classical conditioning was good at explaining how respondent behaviors affected learning. However, not all learning is based on respondent behaviors. According to Skinner, the greatest learning came from voluntary actions and their consequences.The second type of behaviors that Skinner identified are known as operant behaviors. Skinner defined operant behaviors as voluntary behaviors that act upon the environment resulting in a consequence.Unlike respondent behaviors, operant behaviors are under our conscious control, and can be learned voluntarily. According to Skinner, the outcomes of our actions have a major impact on the process of learning operant behaviors.COMPONENTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONINGWe noted earlier that operant conditioning is based on two major factors: reinforcement and punishment. Let us take a look at these two factors.ReinforcementReinforcement refers to any environmental consequence to an action that increases the likelihood of the action being repeated . Reinforcement strengthens behavior. There are two types of reinforcement:Positive reinforcement: This refers to consequences where a favorable event or outcome is added following a certain behavior, leading to the strengthening of the behavior. For example, when you go the extra mile and receive praise from your boss, this is an example of positive reinforcement.To show how positive reinforcement works, Skinner placed a hungry rat in the operant conditioning chamber. In one side of the chamber was a lever that dropped food pellets into the chamber when pressed. As the rat moved around the box, at one point it would accidently press the lever, resulting in a pellet of food being dropped into the chamber immediately.Over time, the rat would learn that pressing the lever led to food being released, and it quickly learned to go directly to the lever whenever it was placed in the chamber. Receiving food every time it pressed the lever acted as positive reinforcement, ensuring that the rat would keep pressing the lever again and again.Negative reinforcement: This refers to consequences where an unfavorable event or outcome is removed following a certain behavior. In this case, the behavior is strengthened not by the desire to get something good, but rather by the desire to get out of an unpleasant condition.A good example of negative reinforcement is a teacher promising to exempt students who have perfect attendance from the final test. The test is something unpleasant for the students, but if they display certain behavior (perfect attendance), they won’t have to sit the test. This encourages them to attend all classes.Such responses are referred to as negative reinforcement because the removal of the unfavorable event or outcome is rewarding to the individual. While they have not actually received anything, not sitting a test can still be seen as a reward.To show how negative reinforcement works, Skinner placed a rat in the operant conditioning chamber and then delivered an unpleasant electric through the floor of the chamber. As the rat moved about in discomfort, it would accidently knock the lever, switching off the electric current immediately.Over time, the rat learns that it can escape from the unpleasant electric current by pressing the lever, and it starts going directly to the lever every time the current is switched on.PunishmentPunishment refers to any adverse or unwanted environmental consequence to an action that reduces the probability of the action being repeated. In other words, punishment weakens behavior. There are two types of punishment:Positive punishment: This refers to consequences where an unfavorable or unpleasant event or outcome is presented or applied following a certain behavior in order to discourage the behavior.For instance, when you get fined for a traffic infraction, that is an example of positive punishment. An unfavorable outcome (payment of the fine) is applied to discourage you from committing the infr action again.Negative punishment: This refers to consequences where a favorable or pleasant outcome is removed following a certain behavior. This can also be referred to as punishment by removal. An example of negative punishment is where a parent denies a child the opportunity to watch television following misbehavior by the child.Sometimes, it can be challenging to distinguish between punishment and negative reinforcement. What you need to remember is that reinforcement (both positive and negative) is meant to strengthen behavior, while punishment is used to weaken behavior.It is also good to note that reinforcement is a more effective in effecting behavior change compared to punishment for a number of reasons. These include:Punishment merely suppresses behavior. The behavior is not forgotten, and once the punishment is no longer present, the behavior might return.Punishment does not necessarily lead to desired behavior. It only discourages unwanted behavior.Punishment can lead to increased aggression â€" it teaches the individual that aggression is an acceptable way of dealing with problems.Punishment leads to fear, which can lead to other unwanted behavior. For instance, spanking a child for not performing well can lead to fear of school.REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULESApart from reinforcement and punishment, behaviorists also discovered that operant conditioning is also influenced by reinforcement schedules.Reinforcement schedule refers to the rules that determine when and how often behavior reinforcements are delivered.Reinforcement schedules have an impact on how quickly behaviors are learned and the strength of the acquired behavior.There are several different delivery schedules that can be used to influence the operant conditioning process. These include:Continuous reinforcement: This is a schedule where a reinforcement is immediately delivered every time a response occurs. For instance, a food pellet is dropped immediately every time the lever is pressed. Wit h continuous reinforcement, new behaviors are learned relatively quickly.However, the response rate (the rate at which the rat presses the lever) is quite low. The learned behavior is also forgotten very quickly once reinforcement stops.Fixed ratio reinforcement: This is a schedule where the reinforcement is delivered only after a behavior or response has occurred a specified number of times. For instance, a pellet of food is released every fifth time the rat presses the lever. With fixed ratio schedules, the response rate as well as the extinction rate (the rate at which the learned behavior is forgotten) is medium.Fixed interval reinforcement: This refers to a schedule where reinforcement is delivered after a specified interval of time, provided the correct response has been made at least once. The response rate is medium, though the responses tend to increase as the interval approaches and slow down following the delivery of the reinforcement.Variable ratio reinforcement: This re fers to a reinforcement schedule where reinforcement is delivered after an unpredictable number of responses. A good example of variable ratio reinforcement is gambling. Variable ratio reinforcement results in a very high response rate and a very slow extinction rate. This explains why gambling becomes addictive.Variable interval reinforcement: This refers to a reinforcement schedule where reinforcement is delivered after an unpredictable interval of time has elapsed, provided the correct response has been made at least once. Variable ratio reinforcement also results in a very high response rate and a very slow extinction rate.Apart from reinforcement schedules, there are a few other factors that influence the effectiveness of reinforcement and punishment. These include:Satiation/Deprivation: Reinforcements lead to behavior change because of the individual’s craving for the reward/reinforcement. However, if the individual has received enough of the reward to satiate his or her cra ving, the individual will be less inclined to display the desired behavior.When the individual has been deprived of the reward, on the other hand, the effectiveness of the reinforcement will be increased due to the increased craving for the reward. This explains why Skinner used hungry rats in his experiments.Immediacy: Learning occurs faster when the consequence (reinforcement or punishment) is delivered immediately after an action or behavior. The more the consequence is delayed, the more ineffective it becomes.Consistency: Reinforcements that are consistently delivered following every correct response lead to faster learning times. Intermittent delivery of reinforcements leads to slower learning, but then the learned behavior is harder to extinguish compared to when reinforcements are consistently delivered after each correct response.Size: The amount of reinforcement or punishment also has an effect on the effectiveness of the consequence. When the reward is too little, it might not seem worthwhile to go through a lot of effort displaying the desired behavior for such a small reward.Similarly, when the punishment is too small, the benefits of engaging in the unwanted behavior might outweigh the discomfort of experiencing the punishment.APPLICATIONS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AT THE WORKPLACEOperant conditioning can be applied at the workplace in various ways, from instituting corporate culture and addressing interactions between employees to helping an organization achieve its annual targets.Below are some ways operant conditioning can be useful at the workplace:Increased ProductivityPositive reinforcement, one of the key components of operant conditioning, can be used to increase productivity at the workplace.Providing employees with positive reinforcement â€" through verbal praise and through incentives such as bonuses, generous perks and pay increases can motivate employees to work harder, leading to increased productivity for the entire organization.Corpo rate CultureCompany culture is very important. It affects everything, from employee satisfaction to performance and how your organization is perceived in the media.To cultivate a great company culture, managers should identify the behaviors that need to be encouraged within the workplace and those that need to be discouraged.They can then come up with a system of rewards and punishments that are in line with the company’s desired culture.TeamworkHaving your employees work in teams is a great way of harnessing the benefits of both reinforcement and punishment. Working in teams can help your employees cover each other’s weaknesses and achieve their targets, helping them receive praise or promotions (reinforcement).At the same time, if certain members of the team are not working as hard as they should, they will incur negative backlash (punishment) from their team members, thus discouraging them from slacking off in future.This way, working as a team provides reinforcement for good performance and hard work and at the same time provides punishment for those who go against the grain.Using Sales as a RewardReinforcement is also commonly used to boost performance in sales departments. Many businesses provide bonuses for sales people who hit their targets. The bonus acts as positive reinforcement for achieving their targets.This motivates the sales people to learn everything they need to do in order to close more sales, hit their targets and get the bonus.WRAPPING UPSkinner’s theory of operant conditioning has been an important tool in helping psychologists understand how individuals learn and modify their behavior. The theory surmises that our environment and its reactions to our actions has a major influence on our behavior.Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning is something we use in daily life to either encourage behavior â€" by providing reinforcements â€" or to discourage behavior â€" by meting out punishment.You can see examples of operant conditioni ng in various spheres of daily life, from teaching your children good behavior and pet training to encouraging good performance at work and teaching good discipline in the military.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Gender Roles Essay - 686 Words

The â€Å"long held stereotype of the typical family† has become a thing in the past. More and more do we see both men and women seeking work outside of the home in order to provide a stable household? In today’s society, a woman who stays home is often considered as lazy or useless, which is far from true according to the long held stereotype. Although men and women have had a history of pushing boundaries and breaking free of their specific gender roles in the past, our people as a whole haven’t learned from these courageous examples. Instead, there are traditional ways in which our children are molded from long held ideals which have survived throughout many years and continue to segregate men and women apart. Certain occupations and many†¦show more content†¦Not only do jobs lack equal promotional opportunities for women as well, institutions make it hard for a woman to keep her job or get one. For example, a mother is typically the first person a sc hool or a daycare center will contact in regards to her child. Also, it is frequently the mother who stays home from work to care for a sick child or an ill relative. These expectations and obligations pushes women to conform to society’s gender roles. The media is all around us from billboards, magazines, commercials and the internet, the media is wherever we go. The media continues to enforce specific gender roles and it is by far the strongest enforcement. For example, in commercials that pertain to cooking and cleaning products, women are often employed to model the product’s use. Secondly, young girls are rarely seen playing with action figures or toy cars on television as well. Not only are women being taught on what is considered to be gender appropriate, but men are too. Men are often portrayed to be masculine in most types of media. Commercials frequently show a dozen women swooning over a man with body spray or handing a man a beer when he is doing something inappropriate for his gender. The â€Å"long held stereotype of the typical family† seems to be a practice that no longer exists. Although many families have strayed from this idea, it continues to be desired. Times have progressed and ourShow MoreRelatedGender, Masculinity, And Gender Roles1380 Words   |  6 Pagesenvironment, but is instead, viewed from the perspective of women themselves. They are not observed from outside in, but from the inside out. At the same time, Danzon reverses and thus subverts the classic representations of gender, while relocating and challenging gender roles. Unlike the common representation of women in former Mexican cinema, femininity is not defined as being an opposition to masculinity in the film. In fact, men almost rarely appear. When they do appear, they appear as constructedRead MoreThe Role Of Socialization And Gender Roles852 Words   |  4 PagesINTRODUCTIOn tell me what you are focussing on†¦..family and theirgender roles Socialisation is the process by which a child learns to respect his or her environmental laws such as norms, values and customs. Socialisation helps the infant gradually become self-aware and a knowledgeable person, skilled in the ways of the culture into which he or she is born. Children within the primary socialisation of the family learn a great deal from parents and other care givers such as grandparents, grandmothersRead MoreGender Roles And Gender Role844 Words   |  4 PagesGender Roles can be defined as roles society expects people to play on account of their sex life. Like all roles, gender roles are made up of sets of expectations, so they can be thought of as sets of expirations, so they can be thought of as sets of expectation that are attached to sex.(pp: 220 John E. Farley Michael W. Flota). The key word gender role affects me personally because as recent graduate of high school it’s time for me to go into the real world, of working class gender role of theRead MoreGender Roles And Gender Role Essay784 Words   |  4 Pagessession, I will discuss the gender roles in my family. The definition of gender role is the degree to which a person adopts the gender-specific behaviors ascribed by his or her culture (Matsumoto, D. R., Juang 2013, 156). For example, traditional gender roles recommend that males are aggressive, angry, and unemotional. It goes further and explains that the male should leave the home every day to make a living and be the main wage earner. The traditional gender role for the female purpose is toRead MoreGender Roles And Gender Role Essay1385 Words   |  6 PagesOF SUBMISSION Gender roles Introduction Gender is set of characteristics that may be used to differentiate between female and male through the use of one’s gender or through gender identity therefore. Gender role can be considered as the hypothetical construct in humanities and in many social sciences referring to a set of behavioral and social norms which in a particular culture may be largely regarded to be socially appropriate for individuals of a particular sex, gender roles vary from variousRead MoreThe Shift Of Gender Roles940 Words   |  4 PagesThe Shift of Gender Roles Gender roles are a major component of many wonderful pieces of literature and differ as time passes. The amazing part about reading novels set in different time periods is that as readers we can see the progression of these gender roles throughout time. Willa Cather s novel One of Ours displays both traditional and non-traditional gender roles. These gender roles are displayed through the main characters Claude and Enid, and minor characters such as Leonard Dawson andRead MoreThe Influence Of Gender Roles1404 Words   |  6 Pages The Influence of Gender Role Stereotyping Shawn Berkley Santa Fe College Abstract Study on gender role stereotypes has shown that there are several negative effects of stereotyping. The study on how gender role stereotyping effects children is not as prevalent because most believe that it doesn’t matter, since children are just forming their stereotype so children do not care. However, some psychologists have done some research on it, and from their researchRead MoreGender Roles in Society1047 Words   |  4 PagesBroadly conceptualized, gender roles are what our society expects and values in their community. They shape our behavior and values, thoughts and feelings, even going so far as to denote a person’s worth. Gender roles are present in everyday situations. In the past they strictly dictated the behavior of people in the community (the right to vote, occupations women were allowed to work in), though in the recent past have become more subtle and more successfully challenged. In some instances they areRead MoreThe Gender Roles Of A Woman975 Wo rds   |  4 Pagesshe is immediately outcasted and seen as a problem instead of embraced. Anowa, who is the young lady protagonist in Ama Ata Aidoo’s short story, â€Å"Anowa†, does just that. She challenges the gender roles in many ways throughout the story in order to push back against the idea that all women should accept the role as the passive bystander to her male counterpart that society and traditions have predetermined for her, she ultimately expects more out of her life than just living her mother’s life. RegardlessRead More Gender Roles Essay864 Words   |  4 PagesGender Roles The affects of gender roles on people greatly change the way the society runs. According to the Websters dictionary the definition of gender are the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex, and the definition of role is a character assigned or assumed. The key word in this definition is assumed; therefore, whether you are male or female, you know what role you must play in society. Traditional gender roles are beneficial

Friday, May 8, 2020

Management and Development - 2671 Words

4DEP Developing Yourself as an Effective Human Resources Practitioner Activity 1 The CIPD HRPM is an outline of what CIPD believes are the core behaviours, activities and knowledge that an individual would need to become a good HR professional. It is also to help the individual develop the above attributes for the future to add value to the organisation. It is a point of reference to show what a successful HR professional should look like at all levels and sets targets and objectives for future development for each of the bands. The HRPM is broken down as follows: 10 professional areas – that layout the requirements, what you need to do and know at all the four bands as well as outlining the predominant behaviours that you need to†¦show more content†¦The HR professional needs to be easy to contact and able to respond quickly and effectively. Obviously employees require accurate pay and benefits, on time. They also want to be given the opportunity for training and development. Managers want an HR function which understands the workforce and can help balance the organisations employee and business needs. They want a proactive HR function which identifies issues before they happen and works with managers to address them. They would like HR to help them with their most challenging people issues including motivation, change and skills development. An HR function which does not understand the business and the workforce completely loses its value. The needs of employees and managers may sometimes be conflicting. For example, managers require high levels of production and longer working hours whereas employees want more time off and more focus on work/life balance. A good HR department need to work with both groups to find the right balance. A way of resolving these conflicts is to focus on the overall needs of the organisation. Ensuring that the appropriate workers are recruited and retained will help this. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Crude Art of Policy Making Free Essays

Lessons: The Crude Art of Policy Making All over the world, the price of crude oil experiences wide price swings in times of shortage or oversupply just like other commodities. The crude oil cycle may extend over several years responding to changes in demand and supply. In this paper, we intend to discuss the dynamics and impact in the economy, and how the central banks respond to a rise in oil price. We will write a custom essay sample on The Crude Art of Policy Making or any similar topic only for you Order Now To be able to understand the dynamics of adjustment of oil price, we use the economic diagram of aggregate demand and supply given by D1 and S1 respectively in the left hand graph, where the points they intersect signify that the economy is in equilibrium. In the graph, Q1 is the output at the natural level of output and implies the price, P1. Based on the graph, the shift on aggregate supply curve to the left, to S2 is caused by the firm who imports crude Graph1. The impact of higher oil prices. oil. If the price of importing crude oil is high, then the firm’s production costs will also increase. As a result, it reduces profit so they supply fewer goods and services. This can also relate according to Blanchard, using the equation: P = Pe (1+?) F(1- u,z) where, u = unemployment rate ? = mark up of the price over nominal wage Pe = expected price level In this equation, given the Pe, the increase in the price of oil shows an increase in the mark up, ?. The increase in the mark up will lead the firms to increase their prices, leading to an increase in the price level, P, at any level of output, Q. Then, the aggregate supply curve shifts up or move to the left. In addition, the aggregate demand curve also moves left, to D2. The increase in the price of oil leads the firms to increase their price which decrease the demand and output. As a result, the consumers would be resulted in lower rates of consumption due to increase in the price level. Thus, economy suffers both a negative supply shock and negative demand shock. Over time, output decreases further and the price level increase further. Now we know the impact of the increase of price of oil in the economy. Second we want to know is how the central bank responds in this issue. According to the article, higher oil prices are neither inflationary nor deflationary in themselves. It depends upon how the monetary policy reacts. Based on the right-hand graph, it shows how policy responded after the 1973-74 oil price shock. This will attempt to prevent output falling. For example, based on the article, America’s Federal funds rate was cut from 11% in mid 1974 to less than 6% in 1975, resulting in sharply negative real interest rates. In effect, this shifts the demand curve to the right, to D3, with same output at Q1. But still, the price tends to increase to P3. To hold the inflation down, central banks must increase interest rates. On the left hand graph, this implies a further leftward shift in the demand curve and shows a larger decrease of output. Take note an increase in interest rates does not necessary imply a tightening of policy of inflation which caused by higher oil prices. According to the article, central banks need to raise interest rates to simply keep real interest rates stable. To be able to increase interest rates, there should be a sign of a rise in the core of inflation, excluding the energy prices. In Europe, the increase in inflation tends to spill over into wages compare in America because of less flexible labour markets. So the European Central Bank (ECB) will be more cautious when the oil prices increase. In addition, central banks must know the recurring position of the economy to know if they need to increase interest rates. If the economy is slack, the bigger the risk that increase in crude oil will quickly affect the wages and that firms will be able to pass on higher costs. In contrast, when economy is weak and the oil price decrease then it tends to risks of deflation, the central bank will cut the rates. How to cite The Crude Art of Policy Making, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

UNC Chapel Hill 2018-2019 Essay Prompts

Want to attend the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (also known as UNC or, simply, Carolina)? You’ll need to answer these essay prompts to do so.UNC Chapel Hill 2018-2019 application essay prompts: Analysis ExamplesKnown as one of the top schools in the US with top tier programs in Communication and Media Studies, Biology, Psychology, Economics, and Political Science, UNC Chapel Hill is a dream school for many students. To gain admission, you’ll need to answer two of the following four essay prompts specific to the school. Here’s how to tackle them (plus, real examples below!). Each response is limited to 200-250 words.UNC Chapel Hill Essay Prompt #1:Tell us about a peer who has made a difference in your life. How to interpret this prompt: A slightly different take on the traditional â€Å"Who inspires you?†an essay prompt many applicants use to write about mentorsthis prompt is unique in that it asks the applicant to look toward classmates and colleagues as sources of inspiration. It’s an opportunity to consider the people you interact with on a daily basis from a viewpoint you may not have previously considered. Why is UNC asking this?: This prompt can help gauge the level of engagement you have with your peers and how much you respect and draw inspiration from them. Essay example:My natural habitat is where tater tots are consumed, homework questions are discussed, essays are proofread, the economic and political repercussions of the Death Star debated, and fashion suggestions are as common as snow in New England. These seemingly unrelated activities come together in one place in my life: the twenty-five minutes before class when a group known as The BottomFeeders ritually assembles everyday in Linda Pirek’s classroom. Essay excerpt from TheNotoriousPh, UNC Chapel Hill 18.Unlock this UNC Chapel Hill profile to read the full essay!UNC Chapel Hill Essay Prompt #2:What do you hope will change about the place where you live?How to interpret this prompt: This essay lets the applicant talk about his/her background: where were you raised and, more importantly, how were you raised? What are the circumstances that led you to where you are today and what are your corresponding values? Worded another way, it’s a critique on the place you grew up and how you believe changing it would improve it. There’s room here for social commentary if you feel comfortable. Why is UNC asking this?: How have you made the most of your surroundings (a quality that is important in a college candidate)? Is your assessment of the problem and proposed solution one that demonstrates humility and maturity? Essay example:Growing up in the Bible Belt, I felt uncomfortable about my family’s lack of religion. My mom and dad both came from church-going families, yet we only went for the occasional holiday, and even then only for the social experience. At first, my younger brothers and I would whine about having to dress up, sometimes even hiding when my dad called for us to load up in the minivan. But as I entered third grade, my peers pressured me into wanting to attend church.Essay excerpt from Reagan, UNC Chapel Hill 17.Unlock this UNC Chapel Hill profile to read her personal statement and supplemental essays! UNC Chapel Hill Essay Prompt #3:What is one thing that we don’t know about you that you want us to know?How to interpret this prompt: What is something that isn’t listed on your resume or activities list that matters to you? Talk about a special talent, hobby, or cause that you may not have showcased in the rest of your application that could shed light on the type of person you are. Consider the qualities about yourself that you’d like to bring to the forefrontmaybe it’s an interpersonal quality, such as the ability to listen non-judgmentally, or maybe it’s a skill you’re currently working on, such as speed reading. Don’t forget to talk about why it matters to you. Why is UNC asking this?: It’s an attempt to get a full picture of you as a three dimensional person beyond your shiny accolades. Can you delight the reader with something unexpected; give them a glimpse of who you are if you weren’t trying to impress. Essay example:In this world there is one thing that inspires me, keeps me going through thick and thin; Cold Stone Cotton Candy ice cream. Even the thought of the decadent treat motivates me to make that final push. Although it is a delicious pleasure, its not just the idea of consuming the ice cream that inspires me. The ice cream itself inspires me to be sweet, let my true colors show, and allow myself a reward every once in awhile. Essay excerpt from Hwoodworth, UNC Chapel Hill 21.Unlock this successful UNC Chapel Hill application file to read the full essay! UNC Chapel Hill Essay Prompt #4:What about your background, or what perspective, belief, or experience, will help you contribute to the education of your classmates at UNC? How to interpret this prompt: Consider this a diversity statement that specifically speaks to UNC. Beyond just your background, what is something you care about that you think increases the diversity of the UNC student body? The beauty of this question is that your diversity can be what you define it to be. Are you inordinately interested in ocean conservation growing up in a landlocked state? Are you a cis-ally of the LGBTQ community? How will you bring an open-minded, tolerant voice to the study body at UNC?Why is UNC asking this?: To better understand from your point of view what you believe makes you a unique asset to the school. Beyond the â€Å"diversity† factors listed on your application, what makes you diverse that may not be apparent from the rest of your application? Essay example:Im from Holland, Michigan, and here the saying goes, â€Å"If you ain’t Dutch, you ain’t much.† No one actually feels that way, but the community is extremely influenced by the Netherlands. Our main attraction is the Tulip Time Festival every May. We’ve also got the huge DeZwaan Windmill, Veldheer Tulip Farm, a blue delft factory, and an unusually high population of tall women. Also, literally everyone owns a pair of wooden shoes. This enlightening Dutch influence has changed my perspective more than anything else since moving here 7 years ago. Essay excerpt from davislw, UNC Chapel Hill 16.Unlock this successful UNC Chapel Hill profile to read the full supplemental essay! As you respond to these prompts, remember that you should be writing with an eye on maximizing fit with UNC. In other words, reveal aspects about yourself that will highlight why you’re a great fit at the school. Hope this was helpful as you write your supplemental essays! If you have any additional questions, please comment below and we’ll give you more advice! Get access to profiles in our database! Ourpremium plansoffer different levels of profile access and data insights that can help you with your application process. Unlock any of ourpackagesor search ourundergraduate profile databaseto find specific profiles that can help you make an informed choice about where to apply!